Research Areas






The Health Informatics Research program at UOIT has several core topics of study. They can be viewed by accessing the sites on the left-hand navigation window.

Data Mining

The focus of UOIT HIR research within the domain of data mining has been to explore new innovative approaches to data mining that support the analysis of data stream behaviours as they exist prior to an independent event and for this data mining framework to support multiple research studies using the same data to investigate the behaviours for multiple events.

Professor McGregor has led research to extended the CRISP-DM data mining standard to support temporal data mining of data streams and created CRISP-TDM.

Professor McGregor has developed and patented the Service based Multidimensional Temporal Data Mining (STDMn0) technique.

Impact of Technology

Patient Journey Modelling

Healthcare facilities across Canada are under increasing pressure to report on and improve a patient’s journey through the health care system. Simply implementing computing tools to manage healthcare information without an integrated way to plan and manage the changing work practices is proving to be of little benefit to these healthcare facilities or their staff.

Proposing new ways to model the patient’s journey and providing healthcare organizations with structured tools and techniques to support organizational change for quality improvement is a research focus for Professor Carolyn McGregor, Canada Research Chair in Health Informatics and Associate Professor Jennifer Percival.

Patient Journey Modelling techniques (PaJMa) can be applied to analyze the patient’s journey within a single healthcare organization or their journey through multiple healthcare organizations (e.g. from a community clinic to a regional hospital back to community based home care).

MikeMcCabeTestimonial from Providence Care

The experience of learning about and working with the PaJMa methodology has been quite rewarding on many levels. Applying Dr. McGregor and Dr. Percival's research models in "real life" has been a boon to the implementation of the electronic patient record project.

Mike McCabe, Project Manager/Team Leader
ePatient Record Project
Providence Health Care Centre, Kingston, ON

Research Publications

Steadman, A., McGregor C., Percival, J., James, A., (2012), “Using PaJMa to Enable Comparative Assessment of Health Care Processes within Canadian Neonatal Intensive Care Units”, Advances in Health Informatics Conference (AHIC 2012), CDROM 7 pages, ** AWARDED BEST STUDENT PAPER **

McGregor, C., Steadman, A., Percival, J., James., A., (2012) “A Method for Modeling Health Informatics Capacity in Patient Journeys Supported by Interprofessional Teams”, 2012, proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, HICSS’45, Maui, Hawaii, pp 2790-99

McGregor, C., Catley, C., James, (2011) “A Process Mining Driven Framework for Clinical Guideline Improvement in Critical Care”, Learning from Medical Data Streams 13th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (LEMEDS), pp 35-46

MacDougall, C., McGregor, C., Percival, J., (2010), “The Fusion of Clinical Guidelines with Technology: Trends & Challenges”, Electronic Journal of Health Informatics, 5(2): e14, pp 1-10

Percival J., Catley C., McGregor C., James A., (2009), “A Design for Modelling the Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Information Flows in Neonatal Intensive Care Units”, special volume of Studies in Computational Intelligence, (Springer) on Intelligent Patient Management, S. McClean et al. (Eds.), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009, pp147-169

Catley, C, McGregor, C, Percival J, Curry, J. M., James, A, (2008) Multi-dimensional Knowledge Translation: Enabling Health Informatics Capacity Audits Using Patient Journey Models. 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC08)

McGregor, C., Percival, J., Curry, J., Foster, D., Anstey, E., and D. Churchill (2008) “A Structured Approach to Requirements Gathering Creation Using PaJMa Models” 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC08)

McGregor, C. (2006), "A Framework for the Design of Web Service Based Clinical Management Systems to support Inter and Intra Organizational Patient Journeys", International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp 21-35, ISSN 1555 3396

Curry, J., McGregor, C., Tracy, S., (2006), "Incorporating Balanced Scorecards into the Patient Journey Modelling Process", Health Informatics Conference, Sydney, Australia, CDROM, 7 pages

Curry, J., McGregor, C., Tracy, S., (2006), "A Communication Tool to Improve the Patient Journey Modeling Process", The 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC06), New York, August 30 - September, 3, pp 4726-4730

Curry, J., McGregor, C., (2005), "The Current State of Patient Journey Redesign in Australia", Health Informatics Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 9 pages CDROM, ISBN 0 9751013 5 8


Informatics is the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. Informatics studies the structure, algorithms, behavior, and interactions of natural and artificial systems that store, process, access and communicate information. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations and utilizes foundations developed in other fields. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This has led to the study of informatics that has computational, cognitive and social aspects, including study of the social impact of information technologies.

Informatics in Health Sciences has shown to be effective in recording, monitoring, and analyzing data for research purposes.

Our core research topics in Informatics at this time are:


What is Athena?
Athena extends Artemis to take not just physiological data but also data from a first person shooter serious game, ArmA3, as well as a new haptic garment called ARAIG, by a tech startup company called IFTech Inventing Future Technology Inc.

Athena Publications

1. McGregor, C., Bonnis, B., Stanfield, B., Stanfield, M., 2015, “A Method for Real-time Stimulation and Response Monitoring using Big Data and its Application to Tactical Training”, 28th International Symposium on Computer-based Medical Systems (CBMS 2015),
2. McGregor, C., Bonnis, B., Stanfield, B., Stanfield, M., 2014, “Athena: A Big Data Platform for Real-time Stimulation and Response Monitoring and its Application to Tactical Training”, 5th Annual Military and Veteran Health Research Forum, Toronto, Canada
3. McGregor, C., Bonnis, B., Stanfield, B., Stanfield, M., 2015, “Using Big Data for Virtual Reality Tactical Training Analytics to Support Resilience Assessment and Development”, Military Health System Research Symposium, Fort Lauderdale, USA

Athena Sponsors

Athena Sponsors

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Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

The NICU provides a high level of intensive care to premature infants. Patients within NICUs are monitored through the assessment of a range of physiological parameters as displayed on screen by a range of physiological devices.

The domains of neonatal intensive care and critical care for the elderly are well suited to the service oriented architecture model. When an ill term or premature baby is born in a hospital without Neonatal support, this support is provided via telephone exchange until a specialized team arrives to transport the baby to a NICU.

It is common to require remote on-going support for babies discharged from a Neonatal ICU (NICU) potentially through remote home based sensors feeding real-time event based systems. This is in addition to the remote support required from birth until the baby is transported to a

In order to understand the impact of information technology, particularly to support information flows in the NICU, an IT Capacity audit project has been initiated with the support of the Hospital for Sick Children. This audit is a multi-dimensional, multi-role audit to aid in automating the creation of patient journey models while understanding how information flows between the various roles in the NICU. In particular, the study will analyse the use of technology to support (or deter) information flows and the obstacles to the implementation and integration of ICT in the NICU. This study will be initially run at the Hospital for Sick Children and then through the support of the Canadian Neonatal Network, run at all 27 level 3 or level 4 NICUs in Canada. There is also support from hospitals in Australia, India, and the United States to run the capacity audit. This will enable a regional, national, and international analysis of commonabilities and best practices to be completed.

Related Papers

Percival, J.C., Catley, C., McGregor, C., and A. James “Modeling the Impact of Technology on Information Flows in Neonatal Intensive Care Units” submitted to Studies in Computational Intelligence, Special Volume on Intelligent Patient Management, Under Review

Catley, C., McGregor, C., Percival, J., Curry, J, and James, A. (2008) “Multi-dimensional Knowledge Translation: Enabling Health Informatics Capacity Audits Using Patient Journey Models” 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC08)

Foster, D., McGregor, C., (2006), "Design of an Agent Server for Neonatal Analysis and Trend Detection" International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications, vol. 1, no. 1, pp 27-34, ISSN 1751-1461 (print),  1751-147X (CD-ROM)


Artemis Chronological



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Serious Games in Healthcare

More details on this exciting research area shortly. Thank you for your patience.

Services of Critical Care - Cloud Computing

Healthcare providers and governments are under increased pressure to sustain, maintain, and improve the quality of care due to an increasing volume of critical care patients at both the pre-mature and elderly stages of life. The provision of a service of critical care which utilizes real-time service oriented architectures have great potential to enable clinicians to have support capabilities for patients who are located in remote intensive care units.

Services of critical care is the application of service-oriented architectures to support to provision of healthcare.

Carolyn McGregor whom holds a Canadian Research Chair's primary focus is to develop and research in the Services of Criticial care. Research papers can be found in the "Home based care" and "Security of Data Transmission" areas of this website.

Mikeal Eklund is heavily involved with the Service of Critical Care works in collaboration with Professor McGregor and have worked on several articles together.

Related Papers:

Eklund, J. M., McGregor, C., & Smith, K. P., A Method for Physiological Data Transmission to Support the Service of Critical Care Using DICOM and HL7. Submitted to 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC08)

McGregor, C., & Eklund, J. M. (2008). Real-time Service Oriented Architecture to Support Remote Critical Care: Trends and Challenges, First IEEE International Workshop On Real-Time Service-Oriented Architecture and Applications (RTSOAA 2008), Finland, July, 08

Home Based Care

Advancements in Homed based care will allow health care professionals to monitor home based outpatients. Many systems that are currently in place are point-to-point telehealth systems (which have many benefits, but do not provide economies of scale or take advantage of data processing of informatics, data mining, and other diagnostics).

For support of the elderly, improved approaches are required to enable community nurses to have monitoring of home based outpatients.

Security and Definition of Physiological Data Data Transmission

Home based healthcare will be a more meaningful and effective way to monitor and preserve lives of many patients to come.

The information sent between the host and servers must be protected to ensure that the data is only available to those whom have permission to access it.  Wireless security and sensor systems must be addressed to protect personal and medical information.