Bernadette Murphy

Bernadette Murphy, DC, PhD.
Professor

Dr. Bernadette Murphy completed an undergraduate degree in Life Sciences at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario in 1985 and then completed her four-year Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) degree from the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College in Toronto, Ontario in 1989. Upon graduating, Dr. Murphy travelled to Auckland, New Zealand where she completed her Master of Science (MSc) (First Class Honours) and PhD in Physiology from the University of Auckland. While completing her graduate studies, Dr. Murphy was the director of research at the New Zealand College of Chiropractic.

In 1999, she accepted a lectureship in the Department of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Auckland. She maintained a small clinical practice in addition to her academic work in the 18 years she spent in New Zealand and that experience informs both her research and teaching.

In 2004, she established a MSc in Exercise Rehabilitation at the University of Auckland. This involved setting up a clinic where monitored and supervised exercise could be undertaken and liaising with relevant government agencies in New Zealand to obtain recognition of the program and its graduates. Dr. Murphy established a program aimed to use an evidence-based approach from the start and she incorporated this approach throughout the post-graduate curriculum. In December 2007, she came to UOIT to establish a Kinesiology stream in the Bachelor of Health Science program.

Contact Information:

Office: Science building, Room 348
T: 905.721.8668 ext. 2778
E: bernadette.murphy@uoit.ca

COURSES

Courses taught (past and present) at the undergraduate level:

•Exercise Prescription and Principles of Fitness;
•Exercise Rehabilitation I;
•Exercise Rehabilitation II;
•Kinesiology I: Anatomy of Human Movement; and
•Kinesiology II: Musculoskeletal Biomechanics.

Courses taught (past and present) at the graduate level:

•Neuroscience in Rehabilitation Kinesiology.

RESEARCH SUMMARY

Research area of specialty:

•Altered neural processing in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

Research background and interests:

The overall theme of Dr. Murphy’s research is understanding how altering afferent input from the spine and limbs affects sensorimotor integration and motor control. She is also interested in understanding how the human central nervous system adapts in conditions such as chronic musculoskeletal pain and depression, and understanding the role of physical interventions in aiding the re-establishment of meaningful neural connections. In order to measure altered neural function in humans, she has acquired skills in a number of non-invasive techniques which can be used to measure changes in neural processing and function in humans. This includes nerve stimulation, somatosensory evoked potential techniques (SEPs) to measure processing of sensory input by the brain, electromyography to measure electrical activity in muscles, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is a technique used to investigate the output of the human motor cortex. Recently she has also started to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure changes in muscle function and functional MRI to investigate changes in brain function with exercise.

Dr, Murphy’s research plan is to continue to investigate altered sensorimotor integration in response to repetitive activity, using both SEPs and TMS in laboratory based studies. She is also involved in questionnaire development on neck pain incidence in laptop user and clinical studies of the effects of exercise and manipulation on sensorimotor integration in neck pain patients.

Research collaborators:

•Dr. Heidi Haavik from New Zealand and Dr. Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting from Denmark on studies relating to altered neck input and upper limb sensorimotor integration;
•Drs. Andrew Hogue and Bill Kapralos (UOIT Faculty of Business and Information Technology) and partners from the University of Manitoba, University of Toronto and the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College in developing serious games to: 1) teach safe lifting techniques to professions at high risk of back pain; and 2) develop serious games to train decision making for professions under high levels of cognitive and physiological stress; and
•Multi-disciplinary team from Lakeridge Mental Health, the University of Toronto and Harvard University looking at the mechanisms by which exercise improves brain function.
UOIT graduate student research:

•PhD supervisor for Michael Willams-Bell (2011-in progress). Working title: The Effects of Thermal Stress on Cognitive Decision Making in Firefighters;
•Master of Health Sciences (MHSc) thesis supervisor for Jessica Bossé (2010-in progress). Working title: The Effect of Motor Training on Sensorimotor Integration;
•MHSc thesis supervisor for Julian Daligadu (2010-in progress). Working title: The Role of the Cerebellum in Changes in Corticomotor Output Observed Following Motor Training;
•MHSc thesis co-supervisor for Erin Dancey (2010-in progress). Working title: The Effect of Experimental Pain on Sensorimotor Integration and Cortico-motor Output.
•MHSc thesis co-supervisor for Joanne Gourgouvelis (2010-in progress).Working title: The Role of Exercise in Promoting Hippocampal Activation and Improving Memory;
•MHSc thesis supervisor for Ian Barker (2009 to 2011) – Alterations in Neck Muscle Performance and Proprioception with Fatique, Altered Posture and Recurrent Neck Pain; and
•MHSc thesis supervisor for Diana Gray (2009 to 2011) – Development of Instruments to Assess Physiological and Physical Neck Pain Risk.

PUBLICATIONS & PRESENTATIONS

Recent publications:

•Haavik Taylor,H and Murphy, B.A (2011). Subclinical Neck Pain and the Effects of Cervical Adjustments on Elbow Joint Position Sense. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 34, 88-97;
•Fairhall, S, Magnusson, J, Sharma, S and Murphy, B (2010). Memory Related Dysregulation of Hippocampal Function in Major Depressive Disorder. Biological Psychology, 85(3), 499-503; and
•Kruger, JA, Heap, SA, Murphy, B.A and Dietz, HP (2010). How Best to Measure the Levator Hiatus: Evidence for the Non-Euclidean Nature of the ‘Plane of Minimal Dimensions.’ Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 36(6), 755-8.

Recent conference presentations:

•Murphy, BA, Passmore, S, Bossé, J, Haavik Taylor, H and Lee, T (November 2010). The Effects of Ulnar Nerve Paresthesia on Sensorimotor Integration. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, California. 2010-S-15862-SfN;
•Yielder, P, Daligadu, J, Brown, J and Murphy, B (November 2010). TMS Stimulus Response Recruitment Curve Asymmetry in Left Handed Individuals. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, California. 2010-S-17646-SfN; and
•Goldie, J, McGregor, C and Murphy, B (August 31 to September 4, 2010). Determining Levels of Arousal using Electrocardiography: A Study of HRV During Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Publications since 2006:

•Haavik Taylor, H, Holt, KR and Murphy B (2010). Chiropractors’ Association of Australia Scientific Symposium 2009 first prize award winning paper: Exploring the Neuro-modulatory Effects of the Vertebral Subluxation and Chiropractic Care. Chiropractic Journal of Australia, 40(1): 37-44;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, BA (2010). The Effects of Spinal Manipulation on Central Integration of Dual Somatosensory Input Observed Following Motor Training: A Crossover Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 33(4): 271-262;
•Murphy, BA, Marshall, PW and Haavik Taylor, H (2010). The Cervical Flexion-Relaxation Ratio: Reproducibility and Comparison Between Chronic Neck Pain Patients and Controls. Spine. 35(24), 2103-2108. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181cbc7d8=;
•Marshall, PW and Murphy, BA (2010). Delayed Abdominal Muscle Onsets and Self-report Measures of Pain and Disability in Chronic Low Back Pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20(5):833-839 Epub ahead of print doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2009.09.005;
•Murphy, BA, Haavik Taylor, H and Marshall, PW (2010). The Effect of Spinal Manipulation on the Efficacy of a Rehabilitation Protocol for Patients with Chronic Neck Pain: A Pilot Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 33 (3), 168-177;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy B (2010). Altered Central Integration of Dual Somatosensory input Following Cervical Spine Manipulation. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 33(3), pg. 178-188;
•Marshall, PW, Mannion, J and Murphy, BA (2010). The Eccentric, Concentric Strength Relationship of the Hamstring Muscles in Chronic Low Back Pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20(1), 39-45;
•Marshall, PW, Mannion, J and Murphy, BA (2009). Extensibility of the Hamstrings is Best Explained by Mechanical Components of Muscle Contraction, not Behavioral Measures in Chronic Low Back Pain. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1(8), 709-718;
•Marshall, PW, McKee, A and Murphy, BA (2009). Impaired Trunk and Ankle Stability in Subjects with Functional Ankle Instability. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(8), 1549–1557;
•Foley, LS, Prapavessis, H, Osuch, EA, De Pace, JA, Murphy, BA and Podolinsky, NJ (2008). An Examination of Potential Mechanisms for Exercise as a Treatment for Depression: A Pilot Study. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 1, 69-73;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, B (2008). World Federation of Chiropractic’s 9th Biennial Congress Award Winning Paper (3rd Prize): Altered Sensorimotor Integration with Cervical Spine Manipulation. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 31(2), 115-126;
•Marshall, P and Murphy, B (2008). Muscle Activation Changes After Exercise Rehabilitation for Chronic Low Back Pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89, 1305-1313;
•Marshall, P and Murphy, B (2008). Self Report Measures Best Explain Changes in Disability Compared to Physical Measures After Exercise Rehabilitation for Chronic Low Back Pain, Spine. 33(3), 326-338;
•Kruger, JA, Heap, SA, Murphy, BA and Dietz, HP (2008). Pelvic Floor Function in Nulliparous Women Using 3-Dimensional Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 111, 631-638;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, B (2007). Transient Modulation of Intracortical Inhibition Following Spinal Manipulation. Chiropractic Journal of Australia, 37, 106-116;
•Haavik-Taylor, H and Murphy, BA (2007). Cervical Spine Manipulation Alters Sensorimotor Integration: A Somatosensory Evoked Potential Study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(2), 391- 402;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy B (2007). Altered Cortical Integration of Dual Somatosensory Input Following the Cessation of a 20 minute Period of Repetitive Muscle Activity. Experimental Brain Research, 178, 488-498;
•Kruger, J, Murphy, B and Dietz, HP (2007). Pelvic floor function in elite nulliparous athletes and controls. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 30(1), 81-85;
•Mrachacz-Kersting, N, Fong, M, Murphy, BA and Sinkjaær, T (2007). Changes in Excitability of the Cortical Projections to the Human Tibialis Anterior Following Paired Associative Stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97, 1951-1958;
•Kruger, J, Murphy, B and Thompson, S (2006). Childbirth and Sportswomen: The Perceptions of Obstetric Caregivers. Vision-A Journal of Nursing, November;
•Marshall, PWM and Murphy, BA (2006). Changes in the Flexion Relaxation Response Following an Exercise Intervention. Spine, 31, E877–E883;
•Marshall, PWM and Murphy, BA (2006). The Relationship Between Active and Neural Measures in Patients with Non-specific Low Back Pain. Spine, 31, E518-E524;
•Marshall, PWM and Murphy, BA (2006). Evaluation of Functional and Neuromuscular Changes Following Exercise Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain Using a Swiss Ball: A Pilot Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 29, 550-560;
•Marshall, PWM and Murphy, BA (2006). Changes in Muscle Activity and Perceived Exertion During Exercises Performed on a Swiss Ball. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 31,376-383;
•Marshall, PWM and Murphy, BA (2006). Increased Deltoid and Abdominal Muscle Activity During Swiss Ball Bench Press. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research, 20(4),745-750; and
•Marshall, PWM and Murphy, BA (2006). The Effect of Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation on Feed Forward Activation Times of the Deep Abdominal Musculature. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 29, 196-202.

Conference presentations since 2006:

•Murphy, B, Yielder, P, Bossé, J, Daligadu, J and Haavik Taylor, H (June 16 to 19, 2010). Motor Training Changes Processing of Early Cerebellar and Cortical Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. The XVIII International Conference of the Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK), Aalborg, Denmark. SS608;
•Haavik Taylor, H, Mrachacz,Kersting, N and Murphy, B (June 16 to 19, 2010). Selective Changes of Intracortical Facilitation and Inhibition Following Repetitive Voluntary Movement. The XVIII International Conference of the Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK), Aalborg, Denmark. SS609;
•Passmore, S, Murphy, B, Bossé, J., & Lee, T. (June 16 to 19, 2010). Nerve Parathesia Affects Transfer of a Vibrotactile Morse Code Letter Acquisition Task to Motor Performance. The XVIII International Conference of the Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK), Aalborg, Denmark. SS611;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, BA (June 16 to 19, 2010). Joint Dysfunction as a Form of Altered Afferent Input: Part I: Sensory Processing Changes Following Spinal Manipulation. The XVIII International Conference of the Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK), Aalborg, Denmark. SS612;
•Murphy, BA and Haavik Taylor, H (June 16 to 19, 2010). Joint Dysfunction as a Form of Altered Afferent Input: Part II: Changes in Motor Control Following Spinal Manipulation and Exercise. The XVIII International Conference of the Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK), Aalborg, Denmark. SS613;
•Passmore, S, Murphy, B and Lee, T (March 17 to 19, 2010). The Impact of Ulnar Nerve Paresthesia During Practice Performance of a Vibrotactile Morse Code Letter Acquisition Task. From ACC RAC Las Vegas, Nevada, published in The Journal of Chiropractic Education, Vol. 24, No. 1, Platform presentation 109, 2010;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy BA (March 17 to 19, 2010). Cervical Adjustments Improve Elbow Joint Position Sense. From ACC RAC Las Vegas, Nevada published in The Journal of Chiropractic Education, Vol. 24, No. 1, Platform presentation 114, 2010;
•Haavik Taylor, H, Holt, K and Murphy BA (November 2009). Exploring the neuromodulatory effects of the vertebral subluxation and chiropractic care. The Chiropractors Association of Australia (CAA) Policy Forum and Scientific Symposium. (first prize paper);
•Kruger, J, Heap, SW, Murphy, BA and Dietz, HP (September 29 to October 5, 2009). Evidence of the Non-Euclidean nature of the plane of minimal dimensions. In International continence Society 39th Annual Meeting. San Francisco, California.(oral poster);
•Marshall, PW, Mannion, J and Murphy, BA (April 30-May 2, 2009). Do Mechanical or Behavioral Measures Best Explain hamstring extensibility in low back patients. World Federation of Chiropractic’s 10th Biennial Congress in Montreal, Quebec;
•Passmore, SR, Murphy, BA, Gray, D and Lee, TD (30 April 30 to 2 May 2009). The effect of ulnar nerve parasthesia on sensorimotor synchronization: a quantifiable outcome. World Federation of Chiropractic’s 10th Biennial Congress in Montreal, Quebec;
•Murphy B.A., Marshall, PW and Haavik Taylor H (March 12 to 14, 2009). The effect of spinal manipulation on exercise rehabilitation neuromuscular outcome measures for patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study. ACC Research Agenda Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, JCA 23(1):p83 (first prize clinical science);
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy BA (March 12 to 14, 2009). Spinal Manipulation alters central integration of dual somatosensory input observed following motor training. ACC Research Agenda Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada; JCA 23(1):p83 (1st prize basic science);
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy B (January 27 to 30, 2009). Selective changes in cerebellar-cortical processing following motor training. Australian Neuroscience Society 29th Annual Meeting in Canberra, Australia;
•Marshall, P, Murphy, BA and Haavik Taylor, H (November 2008). Increased Intracortical facilitation following fatiguing closed chain kinetic exercise. Washington, DC: Society for Neuroscience. Prog No: 380.8;
•Kruger, J, Murphy, B, Dietz, HP and Nielsen, P (October 20 to 24, 2008). Pelvic floor muscle compliance in elite nulliparous Athletes. in 38th Annual meeting of the International Continence Society 2008. Cairo, Egypt;
•Murphy, B and Haavik-Taylor, H (September 25 to 26, 2008). Selective Changes of Intracortical facilitation and inhibition following repetitive voluntary movement. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Neuroimaging in Cognition and Behavior, Montréal, Quebec, p. 35;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, B (2008). Altered Central Integration of Dual Somatosensory Input Following Cervical Spine Manipulation. Association of Chiropractic Colleges Research Agenda Conference, Meeting in Washington, DC, March. Abstract published in The Journal of Chiropractic Education, 22 (1): p.79. (first prize winning presentation);
•Kruger, JA, Dietz, HP, Heap, SW and Murphy, BA (7 to10 November, 2007). Anatomy and Biomechanics of the pelvic floor muscles: a comparative study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3D ultrasound. 6th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Pain. p. 386-387. (* award winning poster in Diagnostics category);
•Marshall, P and Murphy, B (November 7 to 10, 2007). Neuromuscular changes following exercise and treatment for chronic low back pain. 6th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Pain. Barcelona, Spain. p.175 (*invited to deliver on plenary platform from original research submissions);
•Marshall, P and Murphy, B (November 7 to 10, 2007). The relationship between self report measures and physical performance measures in chronic low back Pain. 6th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Pain. p.442;
•Marshall, P and Murphy, B (November 7 to 10, 2007). Changes in self-report and physical measurements following exercise rehabilitation for chronic non specific low back pain. 6th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Pain. p. 527;
•Murphy, B, Marshall, P, Govorko, D and Taylor, H (July 18 to 21, 2007). The cervical flexion relaxation ratio, differences between neck patients and controls and changes with exercise. IBRO World Congress of Neuroscience Motor Control Satellite Meeting in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. p. 101;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, B (2007). (July 18 to 21, 2007). Selective changes in intracortical facilitation and inhibition following repetitive voluntary movement. IBRO World Congress of Neuroscience Motor Control Satellite Meeting in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, p. 87;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, B (July 12 to 17, 2007). Altered sensorimotor integration with cervical spine manipulation. IBRO World Congress of Neuroscience in Melbourne, Australia, p. 88;
•Kruger, JA, Dietz, HP, Heap, SW and Murphy, B.A (June 12 to 16, 2007). Comparative Study of Pelvic Floor function in Nulliparous Women using 3/4D Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. International Urogynecologist’s Association (IUGA) 2007 Annual General Meeting. Cancun, Mexico;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, B (May 17 to 19, 2007). Altered sensorimotor integration with cervical spine manipulation. World Federation of Chiropractic’s 9th Biennial Congress in Vilamoura, Portugal, p. 227. (third prize winning paper);
•Murphy, B, Marshall, P, Haavik Taylor, H, Govorko, D and Palmer, S (May 17 to 19, 2007). The cervical flexion-relaxation ratio: Reproducibility and Comparison between Chronic neck pain patients and controls. World Federation of Chiropractic’s 9th Biennial Congress in Vilamoura, Portugal, p. 187;
•Haavik Taylor, H and Murphy, B (May 17 to 19, 2007). Transient modulation of intracortical inhibition following spinal manipulation. World Federation of Chiropractic’s 9th Biennial Congress in Vilamoura, Portugal, p. 228;
•Kruger, J, Dietz, P and Murphy, B (November 27 to 30, 2006). A comparison on of pelvic floor function in nulliparous Elite athletes and nulliparous controls. International Continence Society Meeting; Christchurch, New Zealand;
•Murphy, BA and Marshall, PWM (November 16 to 18, 2006). Changes in the flexion relaxation response following exercise by individuals with chronic specific and non-specific low back pain. New Zealand Sports Medicine and Science Conference; Wellington, New Zealand. p.70;
•Marshall, PWM and Murphy, BA (November 16 to 18, 2006). Changes in Self-rated disability following combined treatment and Exercise for chronic low back pain patients. New Zealand Sports Medicine and Science Conference; Wellington, New Zealand. p.64; and
•Taylor, HH and Murphy, BA (January 31 to February 3, 2006). The effect of cervical spine manipulation on the ability to integrate somatosensory input following repetitive movements. Proceedings of the Australian Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, Sydney, p.28.

Grants:

•Natural Sciences and Engineering Council (NSERC). The effect of altering afferent input from the spine and limbs on sensorimotor integration;
•2011, $135,000.
•Australian Spinal Research Foundation. The effect of chiropractic care on cerebellar function;
•2011, $80,000.
•Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI). Principal Investogator (PI)-sole investigator. The effect of altering afferent input from the spine and limbs on central sensorimotor integration;
•2010, $49,000.
•Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation. PI-sole investigator. The effect of altering afferent input from the spine and limbs on central sensorimotor integration;
•2010, $49,00.
•Natural Sciences and Engineering Council. PI-sole investigator. The effect of altering afferent input from the spine and limbs on central sensorimotor integration;
•2010, $25,000.
•NSERC. PI-sole investigator. The effect of altering afferent input from the spine and limbs on central sensorimotor integration;
•2009 , $20,000.
•Australian Spinal Research Foundation Foundation Co-investigator with H. Haavik Taylor. Chiropractic care and Sensorimotor Integration;
•2008, $45,550 AUS.
•Australian Spinal Research Foundation Foundation. Co-investigator with H. Haavik Taylor and K. Holt, Sensorimotor Integration and falls in elderly;
•2008, $39,315 AUS.
•Australian Spinal Research Foundation Foundation. Principal investigator with H. Haavik Taylor and J. Kruger, co-investigators/ The effects of lumbopelvic adjustments on the function of the pelvic floor muscles;
•2007, $37,000.
•Auckland Medical Research Foundation. PI-Travel grant. International Brain Research Organization World Congress Travel Grant;
•2007, $2,000.
•University of Auckland- Reseacher’s Strategic Support Initiative Awards. PI. The effect of exercise on cortisol levels and neural function;
•2007, $35,000.
•Australian Spinal Research Foundation. PI. P. Marshall-co-investigator, Rehabilitation and Neck Pain;
•2005, $42,283.
•University of Auckland Staff Research Fund. Sole investigator. Pelvic Floor Function in Elite Female Athletes imaged using magnetic resonance imaging and 3-D ultrasoundl;
•2005, $12,000 .
•Auckland Medical Research Foundation. PI-travel grant. Travel grant to Movement Dysfunction conference in Edinburgh; and
•2005, $2,000.
•Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. PI-travel grant. Travel grant to Movement Dysfunction conference in Edinburgh.
•2005, $2,000.